The Five Essential Components of Reading
There are five critical skills that students develop when learning to read:
- Phonemic Awareness- Recognizing and using individual sounds to create words.
/m/ /a/ /t/ = mat
- Phonics- Understanding the relationship between written letters and spoken sounds.
Word families (ex. __ug = bug, dug, rug)
- Reading Fluency- Developing the ability to read a text with ease, rhythm, and expression.
- Vocabulary Development- Learning the meaning and pronunciation of words, including prefixes, suffixes and base words.
- Reading Comprehension Strategies- Acquiring strategies to understand, communicate, and
remember what is read: Asking questions, discussing, and writing about text.
This document is adapted from Duval County Public Schools’ Parent Guide for Elementary School Reading.