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The Five Essential Components of Reading

August 29, 2011


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The Five Essential Components of Reading 

There are five critical skills that students develop when learning to read:


  • Phonemic Awareness- Recognizing and using individual sounds to create words.

/m/ /a/ /t/ = mat


  • Phonics- Understanding the relationship between written letters and spoken sounds.

Word families (ex. __ug = bug, dug, rug)


  • Reading Fluency- Developing the ability to read a text with ease, rhythm, and expression.


  • Vocabulary Development- Learning the meaning  and pronunciation of words, including prefixes, suffixes and base words.


  • Reading Comprehension Strategies- Acquiring strategies to understand, communicate, and

remember what is read: Asking questions, discussing, and writing about text.


This document is adapted from Duval County Public Schools’ Parent Guide for Elementary School Reading.